|Lesson 1: The components of the classic guitar|
|The classic guitar consists of 3 main parts as follows:
|The front board|
|a 2.5-4 mm. thick Pinewood comprising of 2 equal parts - is a major component making echo sound to the guitar. This part consists of Upper Bout or Bust and the other is Lower Bout or Hip (see Fig.1) which each bout is separated. At the middle of the upper part (see Fig.1), the 8.5 cm. diameter circular hole called the Sound Hole will be found which is used for remaining the length of sound. This position is popularly decorated of crossing alphabets or pieces of colourful stones and music makers ornament some of them with jewelry. To strengthen sound more firmly, sometimes small metal pipes are used for this purpose which will be stuck around the hole. The inside of the guitar is called 'Resonator' and at the middle of the lower part of the front board, there is a 3x19-20 cm. piece of square wood called 'bridge' made from Payung wood which it will be divided into two parts by a long rut on it. (Fig 2)||
At the upper part of the Sound Hole, it is the place where situated of a 'Nut'(Fig 2) - made from bone or ivory square shape (in these days, hard plastic has been used instead.)
Nut is used for supporting the strings which are raised over the front board to tie up with the end of the lower part of strings so as to transferring vibration from strings to the body.
At the bottom of bridge, there are 6 holes for tying the end of strings which this style was invented since 1827 to replace the old one.
There are two small sticks under the front board for strengthening it and also supporting the board when strings give vibration. These sticks were initially done by Australian pine wood. One of them is horizontally fixed with the bottom of the sound hole and the other is fixed with the top of the sound hole between the two small obliquely fixed sticks at each side of soundhole. If there is resonator, a thinner stick will be fixed at parallel line to support it. Accordingly, there are another two sticks found at the bottom of the front board. Between these sticks, there are seven pieces of small equal thick and smooth Pine wood which are lied on the sticks at the lower part of soundhole. They are divide into three sticks of each side equally.
At the end of those two sticks meet up each other at the middle of the bottom of guitar precisely while among them the middle stick is the longest one standing upright separated the front board and the bottom equally.
|The back board or bottom||The side board|
|It could be made from Pa Yoong wood, Mahogany wood and Cypress wood. The Cypress wood is Chinese Pine which generally planted around cemetery as a symbol of memory. Apart from these trees, others could also used but regard of a great thickness. The backboard is divided into two equal smooth parts.||The same kind of woods are used to produce the side board. Each side is about 9-10 cm. width which is continually connected with the front board and the backboard from the highest central of the upper part to the lowest part of the bottom. Through the body, an Australian pine stick is firmly fixed at the edge for a more stable.|
The neck is made of 32.5x5x2.3 cm. Cedar stick which the end of this stick is at the top of the guitar. (See fig.3)
The top is smooth and becoming curved steadily proportionally at the bottom.
The neck shaped circle called 'elbow' transfixes the body of the guitar at the middle part of the guitar. (fig.3)
A 2-3 mm. Makluer wood plate or any hard wood called fingerboard is also at the top of the neck. The length of wood plate starts from the top of the neck to the sound hole as its 19 frets are horizontally lied with the fingerboard. These frets are made of steadily convex or thin skinned silver or other metals on the smooth face of the neck. The distance of each fret gives a half different sound which space between each fret called 'case'. The open string and the twelfth case of that string give the octave. At the fingerboard, nut is situated on the top of it which this nut's length is shorter than the other nut at the bridge. There are six ruts on the former nut to fix all six strings of guitar.
|HEAD||The pegs or tuning machine|
|The pegs are smooth parts for turning by hand so that the curl wheel's screw will work on this process. Therefore, it is necessary to get right of how to turn the pegs. For example, if the higher tone is required, then, the pegs must be turned toward the player while if the lower tone is required, the pegs will be turned outward the player. Largely, in these days guitars have 6 strings which the three from the bottom are made from Nylon as the three from the top are made by copper or silver wires wrapped by silk. For Flamenco, it is noticeable that its sides are narrower than general guitars while its pegs made from wood and without Resonator for remaining the echo sound. As well as this, its sides is smaller but rather more decorated. Nowsaday, they seem to be similar, however, Flamenco sound is likely as metallic sound and also there is a thin sheet made from either bones or some kinds of barks situated between Bridge and Sound Hole beside the first string. This sheet is for making rhythm by the right finger which has been used mainly.|